Lithium Battery Research
Li Ion Battery Aging, Degradation, and Failure
Stephen J. Harris  harris.steveharris(at)

Synchrotron Measurements



Failure Statistics NEW!

Internal Pouch T NEW!


Diagnostic studies on NCA/Gr cells

Tortuosity of Porous Electrodes

Mechanics of Silicon Anodes

Nanoparticle Morphology Evolution

The Materials Project

Li Transport
in Graphite Electrode


Strain Maps

X-Ray Tomography

LiCoO2 Particle 1

Molecular Dynamics

Tin Oxide Nanowires

Neutron Imaging

Dendrites and Fracture


Publications by Stephen J Harris



In this research, a Stanford, SLAC, and ALS (Advanced Light Source) team developed synchrotron liquid scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe the spatiotemporal evolution of the lithium composition and insertion rate within lithium battery particles. By combining a microfluidic electrochemical cell with high-energy, synchrotron-generated X-rays, they imaged the lithium composition of single-crystalline, carbon-coated lithium iron phosphate particles as they delithiated (charged) and lithiated (discharged) in an organic liquid electrolyte. They acquired the nanoscale x-ray absorption spectra at the Fe L3 edge, from which the local lithium composition (x in LiXFePO4) can be quantified.

Lithium Battery Synchrotron




Their results show that spatial heterogeneities in reaction rates account for the compositionally nonuniform solid-solution domains during (de)lithiation of LixFePO4. The reaction heterogeneities during delithiation(charge) is amplified but suppressed during lithiation(discharge). These results dervied from synchrotron X-ray microscopy highlight the crucial role of surface reaction rate in lithiation, with implications for lithium batteryelectrode engineering and lithium battery management